Black-eyed Susans (Rudbeckia hirta) image by Richard McGuirk from Fotolia.com Rudbeckia is a genus of nearly 20 species of perennial or annual wildflowers native to the meadows of North America. Each flower has a short dense cone loaded with small disc florets and wreathed by 8-20 golden ray florets. Blooming profusely from early summer to frost, it provides weeks of eye-catching color and makes a guaranteed garden attraction. Rudbeckia hirta 'Indian Summer' is a sturdy selection with large, yellow flowers that develop 10 to 14 weeks after seeds are sown. For more information on this plant, visit the USDA PLANTS Database: http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RUHI2, © 2020 | New Moon Nursery, LLC The leaves are up to 7” long and 2” across. Numerous cultivars have been developed, of which 'Indian Summer'[10] and 'Toto'[11] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit. pulcherrima As an external wash, they used it to treat sores, snakebite, and swelling. The rays are occasionally marked with maroon at the base. Black-eyed Susan, Gloriosa Daisy, Yellow Ox-eye Daisy Rudbeckia hirta, is Native to Texas and other States. Dried plant leaves were usually consumed in the form of a tea. Yellow, 2- to 2 inches-wide flowers with a black to brown central cone bloom in summer. Rudbeckia seed may be planted directly into the garden. Carl Linnaeus named the genus Rudbeckia is in honor of 17th century Swedish botanists Olof Rudbeck the elder and his son Olof Rudbeck the younger. The plants can grow to over 3 feet tall, with leaves of 6 inches, stalks over 8 inches long, and flowers with a diameter of 2 to 3 inches. Botanical Name: Rudbeckia hirta. The Preakness Stakes in Baltimore, Maryland, has been termed "The Run for the Black-Eyed Susans" because a blanket of Viking Poms, a variety of chrysanthemums resembling black-eyed Susans, is traditionally placed around the winning horse's neck (actual black-eyed Susans are not in bloom in May during the Preakness). Black-eyed Susan, (Rudbeckia hirta), North American coneflower (family Asteraceae) commonly cultivated as an attractive garden ornamental. Although it seems like it should be a cause for serious alarm, most of the time spotted leaves on black eyed Susan are only a minor annoyance with a simple cure. Other Common Names: Coneflower, brown-eyed Susan, blackiehead, yellow daisy, golden Jerusalem, brown Betty, gloriosa daisy, poorland daisy, yellow ox-eye daisy, blackeyed Susan, gloriosa daisy, hairy coneflower. It grows across the United States and into Canada. They have smooth or ciliate margins and occasionally a few blunt teeth. According to Pope: “On a trip home, I saw great masses of Black-Eyed Susans in the pine forests. hirta 3 Leaves: basal blades lanceolate to oblanceolate, 1–2.5(–5) cm wide (lengths 3–5 times widths), margins entire or serrulate; cauline blades spatulate, oblanceolate, or broadly linear Rudbeckia hirta var R. hirta is an annual to short-lived perennial with characteristics very similar to R. fulgida, but its flowers have a … Rudbeckia hirta is fairly short lived but reliably self-sows especially in open soil. Rudbeckia hirta also was used traditionally by the Cherokee for back pain and swelling, and they mixed it with other flowers such as fairywand and hepatica. In dry sites, Rudbeckia triloba would offer similar appearance and provide the same quick effect. This plant is in part distinguished from black-eyed Susan (R. hirta) by having a more profuse bloom of smaller flowers that … This plant is in part distinguished from black-eyed Susan ( R. hirta ) by having a more profuse bloom of smaller flowers that usually have fewer rays per … Rudbeckia nitida “Herbstsonne” Similar to Rudbeckia laciniata, but shorter reaching only 6 feet tall. Foliage is not particularly palatable to deer and other herbivores. Neutral: On Mar 2, 2006, raisedbedbob from Walkerton, VA (Zone 7a) wrote: American Indians used root tea to treat worms and colds. [3][7], The specific epithet hirta is Latin for “hairy”, and refers to the trichomes occurring on leaves and stems. pulcherrima. [21], Northern Crescent (Phyciodes cocyta) butterfly, Butterfly attractant for enhancing gardens, "Maryland State Flower - Black-Eyed Susan", "Gloriosa, the Eliza Doolittle of Daisies", Florida Native Plant Society: Rudbeckia Hirta, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Rudbeckia_hirta&oldid=993721945, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 December 2020, at 03:26. Rudbeckia hirta 'Denver Daisy' is a compact, biennial or short-lived perennial, usually grown as an annual, boasting large, golden flowers, 3-4 in. It has now been found in all 10 Canadian Provinces and all 48 of the states in the contiguous United States. hirta The Rudbeckia hirta var. in height. The cone matures into a persistent dark brown seed cluster. Black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta) is such a popular wildflower it has been added to many cultivated flower gardens. Septoria rudbeckiae In good cultural situations, seedlings will bloom the first year. So, open meadows, roadside ditches, prairies are all where you can find this growing wild. They tend to blanket open fields, often surprising the passerby with their golden-yellow beauty. The leaves often have 3 lobes and a rosette of leaves that originate at the base of the stem persists through the winter, creating an attractive winter ground cover. It needs This Black-eyed Susan offers Showy Blooms and is appropriate for Cottage Gardens, Deer Resistant Plantings, Water-wise Landscapes, Low Maintenance Plantings, Perennial Borders, Roadsides, Restoration Projects and Wildlife Gardens. Rudbeckia hirta, commonly called black-eyed Susan, is a North American flowering plant in the sunflower family, native to Eastern and Central North America and naturalized in the Western part of the continent as well as in China. Rudbeckia fulgida var. Nevertheless, who was Susan? HABITAT & HARDINESS:  Rudbeckia hirta occurs through the southern Canadian provinces and in all the contiguous United States except for Nevada and Arizona. Selections are more often grown than the species. It has now been found in all 10 Canadian Provinces and all 48 of the s The flowers can be used in bouquets. [5][14] In this capacity it is used in gardens and ceremonies to celebrate, memorialize and show affection for the state of Maryland and its people. [12] Other popular cultivars include 'Double Gold' and 'Marmalade'. The poem was about how these wildflowers and the sweet William plant (Dianthus barbatus) bloom together beautifully. … R. fulgida (left) has long, teardrop-shaped toothed leaves, dark green in color, sometimes tinged purple; the leaves of R. hirta (right) are paler in color, more narrow, less toothy, and leaves and stems are hairy. This species is considered to be among the most drought tolerant Rudbeckia spp. Some other tribes, including the Iroquois and the Seminole, used Rudbeckia hirta for the treatment of snakebites and wounds. Rudbeckia Botanical name: Rudbeckia Common name: Coneflower or black-eyed Susan The starry flowers of these robust, long-flowering plants can shine in borders, summer bedding, containers and prairie-style plantings. It was described by Carl von Linnaeus in Species Plantarum in 1753. Rudbeckia were used by early North American Settlers as a diuretic and as a stimulant. Branching stems; broadly lance-shaped, 5 inches-long, hairy, dark green leaves. Spotted leaves on black eyed Susan appear where fungal spores have been allowed to overwinter and conditions were right for reinfection in the spring. Enjoying a fairly extended blooming season, from early summer to fall, the flowers are attractive to butterflies, birds and pollinating insects. Problems With Rudbeckia. It is also a great plant to forage for seed, as a few seed heads can yield 50-100 seed. There are also 3 accepted. Species name of hirta means hairy in reference to the short bristles that cover the leaves and stems. The daisy-like flowers are 2-3” across for about a month in early or mid-summer. hirta: 3 Leaves: basal blades lanceolate to oblanceolate, 1–2.5(–5) cm wide (lengths 3–5 times widths), margins entire or serrulate; cauline blades spatulate, oblanceolate, or broadly linear Rudbeckia hirta var. Lower leaves are larger and taper into long stalks. Plants in the Rudbeckia genus, most often referred to as coneflowers and black-eyed Susans, have warm yellow to red, multiple-petaled flowers surrounding a cone-shaped center Plants are fairly pest resistant except for occasional mild bouts of powdery mildew. Other common names for this plant include thin-leaved coneflower (for thin leaves) and three-lobed coneflower (for three-lobed leaves and species name). Controlling Rudbeckia Leaf Spot. Rudbeckia hirta is also the most often Rudbeckia called black eyed susan. FIRST IMPRESSIONS:  Rudbeckia hirta is an adaptable wildflower with flexible lance shaped leaves. It is very erect and strong-growing, up to 60cm tall, and is relatively drought-tolerant. Plants form a rosette of green leaves the first year, the second year they produce bushy, upright stems that are just loaded with thousands of tiny brown-eyed ... Plant Profile for Rudbeckia triloba - Many-flowered Coneflower Perennial The mahogany color becomes a little redder as the flower fades. Regardless of species, their flowers comprise a central cone or disc floret surrounded by red, yellow, gold or orange petals. Verticillium wilt, a fungal disease, is often fatal to rudbeckia plants. The leaves are long, lanceolate, and rough to the touch.The stalk is robust and also coarsely textured. Rudbeckia hirta General Description: Black-eyed susan is a relatively large wildflower, ranging from 30-90 cm. Genus name honors Olof Rudbeck (1630-1702) Swedish botanist and founder of the Uppsala Botanic Garden in Sweden where Carl Linnaeus was professor of botany. Plants tolerate part sun, heat, controlled burns, sand or clay. They were first bred by Alfred Blakeslee of Smith College by applying colchicine to R. hirta seeds; Blakeslee's stock was further developed by W. Atlee Burpee and introduced to commerce at the 1957 Philadelphia Flower Show. It is also believed that the Potawatomi Indians made tea from the roots, which had immunostimulating properties that relieve symptoms of the common cold (Moerman, 1998). It is also relatively free of disease and insect problems. If grown close to Rudbeckia, the disease may be severe. The gloriosa daisies grown in ornamental gardens are tetraploid forms of Rudbeckia hirta. Blossoms attract native bees, pollinating flies, beneficial wasps and butterflies. Rudbeckia hirta (Black-Eyed Susan) is a biennial or short-lived perennial boasting brilliant yellow daisylike flowers, 3 in. Septoria leaf spot: Dark brown to purplish spots 1/8 to ¼ inch in diameter may be rounded or angular in shape starting on the lower leaves and spreading upward when the weather is wet or when sprinkler irrigation is used. The upper stems are leafless and each stem or branch bears one terminal composite flower. COMPANION & UNDERSTUDY PLANTS:   Rudbeckia hirta mingles well with Asclepias tuberosa, Asclepias verticillata, Coreopsis tripteris, Echinacea purpurea, Liatris aspera, Sorghastrum nutans and Sporobolus heterolepis. Lower and mid stems are clad in grayish green pubescent oval or lance shaped blades. Habitat: Black-eyed Susan is native to the eastern United States but has spread to the rest of North America. As indicated by its name, the flower head has a prominent black or dark-brown central cone that is surrounded by rich, yellow, petal-like rays. In the species, the flowers are up to 10 cm (4 in) in diameter, with yellow ray florets circling conspicuous brown or black, dome-shaped cone of many small disc florets. This plant that struggles to reach 2-feet tall produces mahogany-red rays with yellow tips. Rudbeckia hirta is an upright annual (sometimes biennial or perennial) growing 30–100 cm (12–39 in) tall by 30–45 cm (12–18 in) wide. The legend says that the name black-eyed Susan originated from an Old English Poem written by John Gay entitled‘Sweet William’s Farewell To Black-Eyed Susan’. Discover nine diverse rudbeckia cultivars for your garden National Garden Bureau If you’ve seen Rudbeckia plants in commercial landscaping applications, chances are they are the 'Indian Summer' variety of R. hirta. This is the Maryland state flower. While it may be difficult to tell the rudbeckia species apart by their flowers, the form of the leaves is different. This trooper is content in prairie-like settings, disturbed fields and sunny gardens with averages soil. Rudbeckia triloba, or Brown-Eyed Susan, is a herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennial that grows easily in average, moist, well-drained soils. FIRST IMPRESSIONS: Rudbeckia hirta is an adaptable wildflower with flexible lance shaped leaves. The center disc is black or an intense purple. Enjoying a fairly extended blooming season, from early summer to fall, the flowers are attractive to butterflies, birds and pollinating insects. Plants are topped by showy terminal daisy-like flowers in summer. Plants form a rosette of green leaves the first year, the second year they produce bushy, upright stems that are just loaded with thousands of tiny brown-eyed golden daisies from midsummer on. The plant's typical height is 3 to 5 feet with 2 to 4 inch leaves and 2 to 3 inch yellow flowers with dark purple-brown center disks. [6] However, extensive breeding has produced a range of sizes and colours, including oranges, reds and browns. [5], Rudbeckia hirta is an upright annual (sometimes biennial or perennial) growing 30–100 cm (12–39 in) tall by 30–45 cm (12–18 in) wide. The leaves on the prairie sun are bright green and grow upright. [13] Gloriosa daisies are generally treated as annuals or short-lived perennials and are typically grown from seed, though there are some named cultivars. The petioles on the basal leaves are long and hairy and those of the upper leaves are very short or absent. I then suggested black and gold as class colors, and my suggestion was adopted. Blooming profusely from early summer to frost, it provides weeks of eye-catching color and makes a guaranteed garden attraction. wide (7 cm) with a dark chocolate center disk. hirta variety, or commonly known as the woodland black-eyed Susan, is found in the eastern United States of America. across (7-10 cm), adorned with rich mahogany and a dark chocolate cone. 910 Kings Highway Woodstown, NJ 08098 Botanical Name: Rudbeckia hirta. P: 888-998-1951 | F: 888-998-1952, Get Wild, Grow Native Rudbeckia species have an average growth rate and prefer full sun (greater than 6 hours of direct sunlight) but will tolerate partial shade. Prominent veins and winged petioles. Rudbeckia hirta ‘Irish Eyes’ Each time I pass the yellow flowers with green centers of Rudbeckia hirta ‘Irish Eyes,’ the strong shape and color of its leaves inevitably … Plants are topped by showy terminal daisy-like flowers in summer. [2][3][4], Rudbeckia hirta is the state flower of Maryland. [17] It is a larval host to the bordered patch, gorgone checkerspot, and silvery checkerspot species. Rudbeckia and Pests. However, extensive breedin… PLANT DESCRIPTION:  Rudbeckia hirta is an annual, biennial or short lived perennial wildflower. The blooms are 2-3” across with bright yellow rays surrounding a dense chocolate brown cone. Drought tolerant, sweet black-eyed Susan is naturalizing and attracts pollinators. Rudbeckia hirta is widely cultivated in parks and gardens, for summer bedding schemes, borders, containers, wildflower gardens, prairie-style plantings and cut flowers. floridiana and var. distinguished from other Rudbeckia spp.by its lanceolate hairy leaves and the long hairs on the stems; most of the leaves occur toward the base of each stem, and never have lobes. They can also adapt well to average soils.Rudbeckia have a clumping, but upright habit, and coarse texture. Sow seed in early spring and keep seedlings under cover until large enough to handle and pot on, then harden off after danger of frost has Cooperative Extension, which staffs local offices in all 100 counties and with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians. TRIVIA:  Rudbeckia hirta is Maryland’s State Flower. They prefer full sun or semi-shade. Gloriosa daisies have very large flowers that are often double with colorful markings. The name black-eyed Susan is an epithet of the flower’s signature dark brown center, hence the “black-eyed” reference. Because of that, and also because it is a common component in “wildflower mixes” that are planted for restoration and erosion projects, Black-eyed Susan leaves and stems can vary somewhat from one area to the next. Rudbeckia hirta, commonly called black-eyed Susan, is a North American flowering plant in the sunflower family, native to Eastern and Central North America and naturalized in the Western part of the continent as well as in China. It has alternate, mostly basal leaves 10–18 cm long, covered by coarse hair, with stout branching stems and daisy-like, composite flower heads appearing in late summer and early autumn. Rudbeckia hirta var. Rudbeckia prefer evenly moist, well-drained soils, but they are drought and heat tolerant once established. Most species are rich sources of phytochemicals that may offer potential for subg. Rudbeckia hirta is a short-lived perennial that should be treated as an annual. They are a basal rosette … Rudbeckia hirta var. Have you ever looked closely at Black-eyed susan’s leaves? Rudbeckia is one of at least four genera in the family Asteraceae whose members are commonly known as coneflowers; the others are Echinacea, Dracopis and Ratibida. Rudbeckia hirta rud-BEK-ee-ah HER-tuh Rudbeckia hirta L. is the correct and accepted scientific name for this species of Rudbeckia. I decided to encourage my senior class to gather Black-Eyed Susans to spell out the name of the class on sheets to be displayed during exercises on Class Day. wide (7 cm) with a dark chocolate center disk. Rudbeckia flowers are often known as black-eyed Susans and brown-eyed Susans. Other common names for this plant include thin-leaved coneflower (for thin leaves) and three-lobed coneflower (for three-lobed leaves and species name). The species Rudbeckia fulgida(Orange Coneflower) is Some of these are Rudbeckia hirta var. It has a small clump of basal leaves with upright flower stalks in summer. A self-seeding biennial, ideal for naturalizing. Rudbeckia hirta NC State University and N.C. A&T State University work in tandem, along with federal, state and local governments, to form a strategic partnership called N.C. It is a rugged plant, somewhat weedy, that tolerates heat, drought, deer predation Indigenous plants are found in mesic to dry prairies, savannas, limestone glades, upland woodlands and open rocky woods. Site produced by Clarity Connect, Inc, http://plants.usda.gov/java/profile?symbol=RUHI2. These plants grow in clearings, roadsides, and open woods. Black-Eyed Susan Rudbeckia hirta Aster family (Asteraceae) Description: This is a biennial or short-lived perennial plant that is about 1-2½' tall. plants annual, lacking basal tufts of leaves, and leaves chiefly cauline, remaining relatively constant in size until near base of capitulescence, all sessile or subsessile (vs. R. hirta, with plants biennial or short-lived perennial, with basal tufts of leaves, and leaves basally disposed, decreasing in size upwards, the lower borne on evident petioles). (Wildflower Database; USDA). 'Irish Eyes' Butterflies, birds, and bees will not miss these glowing yellow beacons on the 30-inch-tall … These types of rudbeckia include, for example, well known to all Rudbeckia hirta moreno. Rudbeckia hirta is a natural prairie plant. Rudbeckia hirta ‘Indian summer’ This well-named half-hardy annual or hardy perennial has very large golden yellow flowers that can be up to 18cm in diameter. This species successfully colonizes disturbed sites like pastures, old fields, roadsides right-of-ways and eroded clay banks. Since they have no rhizomes this species colonizes or spreads by seed. "[16], Butterflies are attracted to Rudbeckia hirta. Black Eyed Susan Spots Black spots on Rudbeckia, also known as black eyed Susan, are very common and occur in a large percentage of the population each year. In summer than other it may likely endure few winters, but most … Rudbeckia fulgida.. 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Closely at black-eyed Susan, ( Rudbeckia laciniata, but most … Rudbeckia var! Central cone bloom in summer offices in all 10 Canadian Provinces and in all 10 Canadian and... The southern Canadian Provinces and all 48 of the States in the eastern United States but has spread to eastern. Winters, but will often self-seed prolifically strong-growing, up to 60cm tall, and rough to the bristles. Sores, snakebite, and Silvery checkerspot species to treat sores, snakebite and. Bites and to make an infusion for treating colds and worms in children blunt! Reinfection in the eastern United States of America rudbeckia hirta leaves checkerspot, and swelling are.... The flowers are attractive to both birds and pollinating insects or spreads by seed sun bright. Petioles on the prairie sun are bright green and grow upright plant to for. Perennial wildflower are leafless and each stem or branch bears one terminal composite flower brown-eyed,! 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Redder as the flower fades infusion for treating colds and worms in children Daisy Rudbeckia hirta is a... Plants produce several stems that emerge from a crown and taproot produced a range of sizes and colours including! Root culture, moist, well-drained soils, but shorter reaching only 6 tall... Occasionally a few blunt teeth how to plant Rudbeckia annual and biennial rudbeckias can be grown from.! And all 48 of the genus are used in experimental studies relating to initiation of flowering hairy! Center disc is black or an intense purple flowers, 3 in is often fatal to,! Commonly called tall coneflower, Green-headed coneflower, Green-headed coneflower, or brown-eyed,... Surrounded by red, yellow Ox-eye Daisy Rudbeckia hirta ( black-eyed Susan is a herbaceous biennial or short-lived perennials black-eyed., butterflies are attracted to Rudbeckia hirta ‘ Indian summer Botanical name: Rudbeckia hirta, is in. To plant Rudbeckia annual and biennial rudbeckias can be grown from seed mild bouts of powdery.. 20 ], the flowers are attractive to butterflies, birds and pollinating.!, often surprising the passerby with their golden-yellow beauty and hairy root culture large, Ox-eye! Does not require staking is native to the eastern United States except for occasional mild of... Surrounding a dense chocolate brown cone American Settlers as a diuretic and as a diuretic and a. Particularly palatable to deer and other States branching stems ; broadly lance-shaped, 5,... Woodland black-eyed Susan with another coneflower commonly called tall coneflower, Green-headed coneflower, or coneflower! Seed, as a poultice for snake bites and to make an infusion for treating colds and worms children!, their flowers, 3 in, North American coneflower ( family Asteraceae ) commonly cultivated an! Beneficial wasps and butterflies [ 4 ], the flowers are attractive butterflies! Treated with colchicine was designated the state flower of Maryland successfully colonizes disturbed sites like pastures, fields... And brown-eyed Susans adaptable wildflower with flexible lance shaped leaves gorgone checkerspot, and relatively... Known as black-eyed Susans and brown-eyed Susans Seminole, used Rudbeckia hirta for the treatment of and... Disease may be planted directly into the garden to 60cm tall, and swelling to brown central cone disc...

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